6. Physical and Mental Characteristics. These characteristics help to determine types of work
for which an individual is best suited. They also indicate the types and intensity of physical work
he can be expected to perform. Some individuals are better at jobs requiring mechanical ability;
others are capable of performing complex mental tasks requiring reasoning, deduction, and
application. If a bright individual is given a dull job, he may become bored and resentful. If a
person is given a job beyond his capability, he may become discouraged, frustrated, or resentful. A
person assigned outside of their capabilities cannot be expected to make the maximum contribution
to the team effort.
7. Emotional Characteristics. These are particularly important parts of a Soldier's personality.
The way a Soldier reacts to a difficult problem, to danger, or to hardship--all must be understood
by the leader. Under pressure, one man may become angered while another may quit or run away;
still another may react very calmly.
8. Each individual's personality is unique and is constantly changing. People change
physically, mentally, and emotionally as they mature and gain more experience. Factors that tend to
shape personality are discussed below.
9. Heredity. Each person inherits many characteristics from his parents. One may, for
example, inherit the intelligence to become a top scientist or inherit the potential to grow to be six
feet tall. Whether or not they attain the upper limits of their inherited potential depends upon their
environment and life experiences.
10. Environment. Those aspects of the world as the Soldier knows them--the family to which
the Soldier belongs, the churches and schools he attends, the culture of his group--constitute his
environment. These aspects have a pronounced effect on his personality. Taking the example of the
boy who inherits the potential to be a six-footer, the type of food, amount of exercise, and the health
conditions that are a part of his environment may either help or deter him from attaining his
potential height. The individual's environment may accelerate or retard the development of
inherited mental capacity.
11. Experiences. Identical twins may be reared in the same environment, but still develop
different personalities. One encounters experiences different than the other. The unique
experiences that each person encounters affect him mentally and physically. In addition, these
varied experiences play a definite role in emotional growth and in shaping attitudes. Due to these
differences in heredity, environment, and experiences (and there are indeed profound differences),
each individual must be evaluated and treated according to his needs.
12. Human Needs General. For many years, scholars have studied human behavior and have
offered literally hundreds of explanations of human nature and human actions. While no one
explanation of human behavior is completely satisfactory, all behaviorists agree that there are
certain factors, elements or needs that cause personnel to behave in certain ways and to do certain
things. The most basic of these factors are human needs.
13. Human needs are those necessary for a person's existence and for mental and emotional
stability. The human needs required for existence are called physical needs and include food, water,
shelter, clothing, and the elimination of metabolic wastes. Those needs required for mental and