responsibilities that the organization and the Soldier have to each other. The informal contract is
largely based on the individual and the organizational expectations and on the necessity for each to
satisfy the other. The conflict between expectations and reality poses human problems that the
leader must be prepared to deal with on a continuing basis.
2. Needs form the basis for personnel's actions. Needs motivate men to behave in certain ways
and to do certain things. Therefore, any attempt to motivate must be based on an understanding of
human needs and must be directed at satisfying those needs. Motivation is directly related to
performance in daily life and is associated with the higher needs of Maslow's hierarchy as described
previously in this lesson.
3. Some of the lower needs of Maslow's hierarchy are related to job environment. Failure to
provide these needs creates dissatisfaction. If the environment contains dissatisfiers (such as safety
hazards or physical needs), the individual will be concerned with his own well-being to the point of
excluding all other activities that do not lead to this satisfaction. Thus, performance is directed only
to this end, and organizational needs suffer accordingly. It is interesting to note, however, that
elimination of dissatisfiers alone does not create motivation.
4. In the progressive ladder of motivators and satisfiers, the elimination of dissatisfiers causes a
neutral situation in which motivation can occur. The satisfaction of needs on the positive side of the
scale motivates subordinates and military prisoners alike, particularly the restorable prisoner.
Motivation is thus a complete process dependent upon the interaction of all needs. Motivation is
achieved based on those needs created by the situation and on a combination of personal
(individual) and group needs. We might conclude that everyone has some type of motivation to do
something, for man is a rational being. The effective leader must work toward eliminating
dissatisfiers while simultaneously accentuating the motivators so the complex social process can go
5. The primary question for the leader is "How can the motives of the individual be channeled
toward obtaining objectives?" In answering this question, the following factors influence an
individual's motivation to perform well:
a. Motivation to Try. This is simply challenging the individual to experience the feeling
that he can succeed if he tries. The leader offers support, encouragement, and assistance to the
individual. This is important because, on difficult tasks, the one encouraged will tend to keep on
trying until he ultimately succeeds; without encouragement and support, he may simply quit.
b. Expectation of Recognition for Good Work. This is simply encouraging the individual's
feeling that he will be recognized, tangibly or intangibly, for his performance. The individual will
thus tend to translate organizational or institutional goals into personal goals in which he has a
stake. On the other side of the coin, however, a capable individual should never be allowed to
escape the adverse consequences of his poor or unsatisfactory performance. Always, however,
accentuate the positive rather than the negative. By this process, organizational or institutional
goals and personal goals become reinforcing.
c. The Value of Recognition for Good Performance. Praise, an intangible reward, is the
most significant motivator as it affords the recipient a degree of prestige in the eyes of his peers.
Further, it benefits the individual's ego and tends to improve his self-image. Thus, the individual