circumstances, wives could accompany their husbands into exile. Convicts worked from 7 a.m. to 5
p.m. in winter; 5 a.m. to 7 p.m. in summer.
8. The clich€, "back to the salt mines" has its origins in one of the types of labor Siberian convicts
were forced to perform under slave labor conditions.
PART C- The Emergence of Penology.
1. During Reformation in England in 1557, the Bridewell workhouses were instituted. They were
established to cope with the problem of caring for and punishing vagrants, beggars, and dissolute
women. The correctional objective was hard work at disagreeable tasks to deter others from leading
a life of idleness and crime. There was a spinning room, a mail house, a corn mill, and a bakery;
and prisoners were paid for their labors. By 1579, 25 occupations were practiced. Besides
discipline and hard work, other punishments such as whippings and restriction of diet were used.
The Bridewell workhouses greatly influenced later development of the penitentiary.
2. In the seventeenth century, an early Greek philosopher originated the thesis that man was a free,
moral, stubborn agent, and a victim of his own conscience regardless of his environment or
discipline. This thesis still provides the foundation for many known criminal codes. This Greek
thesis was first applied to crime in the seventeenth century.
3. In the eighteenth century, 1773, the Rulers of Ghent in Flanders erected a prison that was used
primarily for housing and disciplining vagrants and beggars. The correctional objective was reform
by hard work. Labor and solitude were used as forms of discipline and information. It was
believed that these methods would cause offenders to repent and again become useful citizens.
Prisoners were classified and segregated. They were kept under strict discipline, were taught trades,
and were locked up at night.
4. John Howard, a great prisoner reformer, is known as the father of modern penal treatment. Mr.
Howard traveled throughout Europe and the United States visiting prisoners. In 1779, he drafted
and introduced into Parliament the Penitentiary Act of 1779. This act was based on four principles:
a. A secure and sanitary structure.
b. Systematic inspection.
c. Abolition of fees.
d. A reformatory regime.
5. In 1794, to implement the Act of 1779, a site for a new penitentiary was selected. Jeremy
Bentham (a philosopher and social critic) prevailed upon authorities to permit him to erect a
penitentiary after his own conception. Fortunately, for penology, it was never built. He called it a
panopticon or inspection house. Plans showed something like a huge lantern covered by a glass
roof with cells on the outer circumference facing the center. There was an apartment for the
prisoners' "keepers" in the center.