who is praised for satisfactory performance (or improved performance) begins to experience the
feeling that he is worth something as an individual because he has been recognized by those persons
in authority. In sharp contrast to this is the supervisor or leader who never praises or compliments
the individual's satisfactory or improved performance. Such a course of action destroys motivation
because the individual begins to believe that he can never perform well or that his superiors are
simply not interested in good performance.
d. The Probability of Punishment. This is the negative motivator which must be judiciously
used by the leader, but which is effective nevertheless. Prompt and firm punishment at the first
occurrence, assuming that the individual knows that punishment is a consequence of his failure to
perform beforehand, may salvage the individual and serve to motivate satisfactory performance in
the future. In the case of a military prisoner, if prompt, firm, and fair punishment fails to motivate
the Soldier after repeated trials, the prisoner is probably nonrestorable and serious consideration
should be given to eliminating him from the service.
PART D - Values.
1. Through an understanding of human behavior, the leader is better able to analyze, predict,
and influence the behavior of his personnel. The military ethic, which is the same as the
predominant social ethic in civilized society, states that each individual is responsible for his own
actions. By implication, living by this ethic is worthwhile or right; we have just defined (in a
roundabout way) what a value system is all about.
2. So what are values and what do values do? A value may be defined more specifically as an
attitude for or against an event based on the belief that it helps or harms some person, group, or
institution. A value is an outward and recognizable display of behavior that is observable and
measurable. Values have also been defined as learned goals, which are developed beginning at the
moment of birth.
3. Values are a person's psychological center and form his character. To truly understand man,
it is necessary to identify and be able to understand a person's value system.
4. How can values be identified? Personal values are those traits that are representative of an
individual's moral character. Although the importance of values varies from person to person,
examples of personal values commonly include honesty, responsibility, loyalty, moral courage, and
5. Social values, which are learned, include loving, interpersonal relationships, social
consciousness, equality, justice, freedom, liberty, and pride in country. These learned values accrue
through both educational and experimental processes. For example, social values are those which
parents teach their children so that their offspring will be able to differentiate right from wrong.
Social values are further subdivided into four classes:
a. Motivation to Try. This is simply challenging the individual to experience the feeling
that he can succeed if he tries. The leader offers support, encouragement, and assistance to the
individual. This is important because, on difficult tasks, the encouraged man will tend to keep on
trying until he ultimately succeeds; without encouragement and support, he may simply quit.