b. Folkways--values people accept out of habit.
c. Mores--a code of morality that governs social behavior. (The Commandment of the
lawgiver Moses of the Old Testament, "Thou shalt not kill," is a more that is universal to western
d. Institutional ways--practices established under law (such as the requirement to have a
driver's license before operating motor vehicles).
e. Taboos--the emphatic dos and don'ts of a particular society. Although generally
associated with nontechnical cultures or so-called primitive peoples, social taboos exist to this day.
(The prohibition against incest may be classified as a taboo because it had its origins as a taboo.)
6. Economic values are identified through such factors as equal employment, a stable economy,
the balancing of supply and demand of productive goods, money, private property, pride of
ownership, and taxes.
7. Political values include loyalty to one's country, concern for the national welfare, and
adherence to democratic principles and the American Way, public service, voting, civic
responsibility, and free elections.
8. Religious values are generally characterized by reverence for life, human dignity, and the
freedom to worship (or not worship, for that matter) as one pleases.
9. So what is the relationship of values to human behavior? Quite simply, a person's behavior
is the product of his values, which have been formulated through a number of institutions such as
home or school, peer group and neighborhood, community and employment, and church or house of
worship. Through these institutions, a code of behavior is disseminated and, in a sense, is thrust
upon the individual in the formative years of his development. Values also change throughout life
based on one's experience and environment.
PART E - Attitudinal Development.
1. Attitudes, which have previously been defined in this lesson, must be viewed in a situational
context. That is, if behavior is the result of an individual's reaction to a situation, group, or leader,
the individual's reaction is dependent upon what the situation is and how he interprets the situation.
Thus, if three people were placed in the same situation, their reactions to the situation would
probably vary because each would perceive the situation differently. Such differences are attitudes.
2. Attitudes are learned much in the same way as are values. This learning occurs gradually
and over a period of time. Most attitudes are learned from those experiences that cause an
impression to be formed. Favorable experiences cause the formation of positive attitudes and
unfavorable experiences. Further, we can and do borrow attitudes from others such as parents,
friends, and peers. As an example, a Soldier enters the military service for the first time and finds
his first military superior to be concerned with his welfare and interested in him as an individual.
Such a Soldier is likely to form a positive attitude toward military service. Once attitudes are
formed, they make up a frame of reference for the individual for his actions and what he sees. Since