b. Homosexual Prisoners. These may be either passive or aggressive. In many cases, only the individual
playing the passive (female) role is identified. This may be because he is the one who seems different. The
active type (the aggressive individual) is often not identified because he appears to be very masculine.
c. Neurotic Prisoners. Another potential problem prisoner is the one who exhibits unreasonable desires or
worries and allows it to become an obsession and it interferes with his functions of a normal life. The chief
characteristic of the neurotic prisoner is a retreat from reality because reality is painful for some reason. With
this avoidance of reality is an inability to deal with the real problems of everyday life.
(1) The milder forms of mental or emotional illness are neuroses. The major symptom of a neurosis is
anxiety or vague and exaggerated feelings that don't seem to have an identifiable cause. This can become a
long-standing pattern of behavior with the person always tense, easily upset, or worried. It can also flare up into
sudden attacks of anxiety when the person manifests physical symptoms such as shaking and perspiring without
knowing why. Sometimes a neurotic develops an unreasonable fear of a particular person, place, or thing. This
unreasonable fear is classified as a phobia.
(2) Sometimes the neurotic's anxiety takes the form of exaggerated concern over physical illness or
symptoms (hypochondria). This physical over concern can either be generalized or quite specific.
Occasionally, this anxiety can result in a particular induced physical symptom such as temporary paralysis or
temporary blindness. Although some may feel the neurotic is simply attempting to gain sympathy through his
playacting, it must be stressed that the discomfort is real to a neurotic. The active neurotic is emotionally ill and
needs professional treatment.
(3) The usual neurotic, however, is a chronically unhappy and overtly depressed person. Under such
circumstances, his emotional picture is sad and dejected, and his behavior and speech are slow. In periods of
depression, which are frequently accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and total loss of self-respect, there
is frequently a clear danger of suicidal attempts. Psychotic prisoners, ones who hold strong beliefs even when
there is real evidence against those beliefs, or those who feel anyone is out to get them, are persons to be
recognized as potential problems. These persons display extreme violence or bizarre behavior.
d. Suicide Risk Prisoners. An individual who claims that he plans on committing suicide should always be
taken seriously. Normally, by announcing his intentions, he is asking for help. Failing to refer him to proper
medical authorities or trying to call his bluff could be dangerous. An extremely depressed individual who has
announced his intentions to commit suicide and then suddenly becomes extremely cheerful should also be
considered dangerous and should be reported. This may be an indication that he has decided to carry out his
e. Alcoholic or Drug User Prisoners. These individuals are extremely devious in their attempts to obtain
alcohol or stimulants of any type. They are often very friendly with the staff to gain acceptance by them.
Anyone suspected of acquiring or using alcohol or drugs must be reported immediately so that proper medical
assistance can be obtained.
f. Prisoners Who Are Manipulators. Manipulators are prisoners who try to get special benefits by doing
favors for staff members. A prisoner will have desires or wishes that are not necessarily for survival such as a
comfort item like an extra blanket, a cigarette, or illegal drugs.
8. Counseling Prisoners. Once an individual has been identified as having a problem, steps must be taken to
help him solve his problem. There are several agencies available for referral. The type of referral will depend
on the problem. Counseling can be divided into two types--generalized and specialized. The division of