(a) Smoking - The opium smoker takes a small amount of opium, called
a "pea of hop," out of the tin or toy with his yen hock. He holds it over the
open flame from his lamp, twisting and turning his "pea" until it turns a
golden brown. He lies on his side as he places his opium pipe near the "pot"
which is still over the open flame.
Holding the pipe sideways, he inhales
deeply. Eventually he falls into a deep, narcotic sleep.
(b) Oral - Opium ashes, or "Yen Shee" is from the residue found in
the opium pipe.
If added to cough syrup or wine, it is known as "Yes Shee
Suey." It is carried by the addict to be used between smokes. An opium addict
finds it difficult to satisfy his craving. This is due to the complexity of
the paraphernalia and the difficulty of finding a secluded spot at any given
moment. The "Yen Shee" or "Yes Shee Suey" will forestall his withdrawal.
b. Morphine was discovered in 1805. Then it was determined that one grain
of morphine produces about the same effect as ten grains of opium. Physicians
recognized opium addiction as a medical fact. However, they failed to realize
the dangers of morphine.
In 1843 the hypodermic needle was invented.
morphine and hypodermic needles were then on hand for the American Civil War.
Morphine was administered during the Civil War, not only to the wounded, but
also those suffering from dysentery.
Vast numbers of soldiers, according to
later accounts, were returned to civilian life addicted to morphine. A term
prevalent at the time, "Soldiers' Illness," actually meant narcotic addiction.
(1) Morphine is usually a white crystalline powder.
It may also appear
in tablet, capsule, and liquid form.
(2) The most common method of use is by injection with a hypodermic
(3) Morphine causes both physical and psychological dependence.
(4) When under the influence, the user will have a sleepy, relaxed
appearance; the pupils of his eyes will be constricted to pinpoints.
(5) Morphine is stocked in US Army hospitals and dispensaries. There it
is under very strict controls.
Any investigator is free to inspect these
narcotic control records when he has a case involving morphine.
He is also
(6) Morphine is the most commonly used, best known alkaloids of opium.
Its principal medical function is the relief of pain. Its greatest drawback is
the danger of addiction. It is usually prescribed in the form of a salt. The
most familiar of these salts are morphine sulphate and morphine hydrochloride.
It has become the standard by which all other narcotic agents are evaluated.