b. Selecting the Developing Protective Measures.
OPSEC measures are
Once a threat against a unit, installation, or
activity is identified, an assessment is made.
It will concern the
vulnerability of each individual EEFI. First, the assessment determines how
vulnerable an EEFI element is to collection efforts; second, an appropriate
countermeasure can then be chosen and implemented. A countermeasure is an
action taken to eliminate or reduce the vulnerability of and EEFI element to
collection. Examples are physical security precautions, security awareness
when using telephone or radio communicators, camouflage techniques, etc.
chance to collect any data that would compromise the operation, activity, or
(1) The principal elements of OPSEC are physical security and
information security; other principals are signal security and, at times,
Physical security measures are perimeter fencing,
badge and pass system, protective sensors, etc. These measures can greatly
aid in implementing an OPSEC program.
Further information concerning
physical security measures can be directed to the local provost marshal
Information security is the protection of information and
documents. This is vitally important to the OPSEC program.
(2) Security procedures may include using only approved storage
containers, double-checking of offices before leaving, etc. Such measures
can be taken by persons to protect classified and sensitive information from
to aid in implementing the OPSEC program.
(3) Signal Security (SIGSEC) includes all measures taken to deny
collection of data from both COMINT and ELINT operations. However, such a
simple thing as not discussing classified or sensitive information over the
telephone can greatly aid in maintaining security. Deception operations are
security measures taken to deceive, mask, or mislead any collection effort.
Camouflage systems for vehicles, equipment, and personnel are simple
The use of detailed deception operations is tightly
controlled, and procedures outlined in applicable regulations and guidelines
should be consulted.
This should occur before beginning a deception
d. OPSEC Surveys.
indicators projected by an operation or activity. The goal is to determine
what an enemy can know and what his potential sources are. The survey is an
intelligence collection effort. Minimal overt manpower is used. The survey
is conducted in a limited time frame. It is important that members of the
surveyed unit and COs at every level understand that the survey is a fact-
finding service; it is not a fault-finding service.