Also, many types of unclassified information are of value to
Many of these sources are often overlooked as potential security
OPSEC considerations must be fully integrated into all daily
duties. This should be done in addition to integration into special highly
sensitive operations. OPSEC is a command responsibility.
a. The most serious threats to the security of Army operations and
activities are hostile intelligence services and their agents. Continuous
emphasis by these services is placed on collecting data.
Such data, of
course, relates to the U.S. and allied forces military capabilities.
also concerns research, development, and industrial techniques.
information from unauthorized disclosure: the Army's OPSEC activities are
used to counter these threats. Those means are as follows:
(1) Human Intelligence (HUMINT).
(2) Signal Intelligence (SIGINT).
(3) Imagery Threat Photographic Intelligence (PHOTINT)/(IMINT).
Human Intelligence (HUMINT).
a. HUMINT is the intelligence obtained by using people to gather items
HUMINT collection involves both overt and covert operations.
Examples of overt operations would include data obtained from public records
and publications; covert operations include inducing people to disclose
It also includes eavesdropping on conversations and/or
conducting surveillance operations. HUMINT may include sources as diverse
as friendly troops who report information about the enemy.
report on interrogations of prisoners, defectors, and refugees; also, they
report on counterintelligence sources. Troops will include statements made
by officials of foreign countries and they will report on terrorist
activities. However, the individual soldier is usually the most important
b. The enemy has many ways of collecting data, and any number of these
methods could be targeted any time and in varying degrees of intensity. We
do have procedures which can deny or hamper the enemy's collection threat.
This is true regardless of the enemy's methods.
The procedures are not
necessarily new; the US Army has used many of them before. All procedures
which keep the enemy from collecting data, giving him a tactical advantage,
are grouped under OPSEC.
Signal Intelligence (SIGINT). SIGINT is intelligence that is obtained
by intercepting electronic signals. This data is gathered by intercepting