(2) Area. The general area (terrain) surrounding the objective should
be analyzed to determine an effective course of action, and to determine what
effect it will have on the general courses of action available to the raiding
party and to the subjects.
(a) Observation and Fire.
Observation relates to the influence of
the terrain on the ability of the raiding party to exercise surveillance over
the objective area.
The best observation is generally obtained from the
highest terrain feature in the area and must be considered as a possible
lookout site for both the raiding party and the subjects. Fire encompasses the
influence of the terrain on the effectiveness of direct fire weapons. Fields
of fire for weapons such as shotguns or rifles are primarily affected by the
terrain conditions between the weapon and the target.
The commander must
identify those features within and adjacent to the objective area which afford
the raiding party and the subjects favorable observation and fire.
also consider them in his subsequent analysis of concealment and cover, and
avenues of approach.
(b) Concealment and Cover.
Concealment is protection from
observation; cover is protection from fire. The commander must determine the
concealment and cover available both to his raiding party and to the subjects.
Concealment may be provided by terrain features such as woods, underbrush,
snowdrifts, tall grass, vegetation, buildings, or by any other feature which
Cover may be provided by such items as trees, rocks,
ditches, quarries, caves, riverbanks, and folds in the ground.
does not necessarily provide cover; however, most terrain features that offer
cover will provide concealment.
An obstacle is any natural or artificial terrain
feature, which stops, impedes, or diverts movement.
The raid commander must
consider them in the movement of the raiding party into and out of the
(d) Avenue of Approach. An avenue of approach is a route for a force
of a particular size to reach an objective. The commander's selection of an
avenue of approach into the objective area is based on the observation and fire
available to him and the subjects, the concealment and cover available to his
troops, the obstacles present in the objective area, adequate space to deploy,
and ease of movement into the area.
(e) Buildings. The general shape of any buildings to be raided must
be included in the analysis of the area. Information is collected about the
number and location of entrances, windows, and fire escapes. The size, shape,
and materials used in construction should be known.
The communication and
warning devices within the building should be noted.
The possible escape
routes within and out of the building must be analyzed.
Key item locations
must be included. Key items would be switchboards, light switches, main fuse
boxes, elevators, stairways, and heating and ventilating systems. Analysis of
the area should include the identity, attitude, and number of persons living in
or around the building. Animals which may act as alarms should also be noted.