In establishing security for a position, the key word OCOKA should be
used. The elements of OCOKA are discussed in the following paragraphs.
a. Observation and Fields of Fire. MP leaders must decide where their
weapons will have the best fields of fire to cover their particular
Weapons at a TCP must have observation and fields of
fire covering avenues of approach.
Observation is needed to gather
information on the enemy, to adjust indirect fire, and to use direct fire
weapons accurately. Fields of fire are cleared far enough out so that the
defenders can kill the enemy before they can assault or throw hand grenades
into fighting positions.
Fields of fires are improved by selectively
clearing grass, brush, trees, and rubble. MP camouflage fresh cuts on trees
and undergrowth so that the enemy cannot see what has been done. MP leaders
must look at observation and fields of fire from the enemy's point of view.
b. Cover and Concealment. Cover and concealment are important factors
concealment hides MP from the enemy and protects them from enemy fire.
Cover includes rocks, stumps, buildings, depressions, or anything that will
stop bullets and shell fragments. When there is not enough natural cover,
teams should build frontal parapets.
Overhead cover, should also be
constructed, as time permits, to protect against indirect fire.
Concealment hides men and weapons.
However, it will not always
protect them from fire.
Leaves and bushes can hide a position.
foliage conceals well because it keeps its natural look and does not have to
from the enemy's viewpoint to ensure that they are well hidden. No matter
how well covered a position is, if it is not properly concealed, it can be
seen and hit.
Obstacles stop, delay, or divert movement.
that can stop tanks and other armored vehicles may not stop dismounted
such as deep creeks, steep ravines, and dense brush, with man-made
obstacles, such as wire and mines. If wire and mines are deployed in thick
woods with large trees, enemy armor and infantry can be slowed or stopped.
MP must be able to cover obstacles with fire in order to prevent the enemy
from neutralizing them.
d. Key Terrain.
Key terrain can be used to set up a defensive
Key terrain, if occupied, gives a marked advantage to the unit
that holds it. Key terrain offers good cover and concealment, observation
points, and fields of fire.
Other terrain features, such as a ford or
narrow pass, may be the key to moving through an area. Key terrain, such as
direct and/or indirect fire.
the other factors.
Avenues of approach influence the assignment of
positions, sectors of fire, and targets, when defending. Enemy avenues of