1. Minority Nationalist Groups. These groups are fighting the majority of the community. There, the
support base will depend on the sympathy of ethnic, religious, or linguistic minorities at odds with the
majority community. Examples are the Basque ETA, or the Black Liberation Army in the United States.
2. Marxist Revolutionary Groups. Here the terrorist movement has a coherent Marxist ideology (of
any persuasion) and a long term strategy for bringing about a socialist revolution. The official wing of
the IRA and the Italian Red Brigades are excellent examples.
3. Anarchist Groups. True anarchists are difficult to find. True anarchy brings lawlessness and
disorder. This is not a natural state for the human race. Those purporting to be anarchists include the
Moviemiento Iberio Libertario (MIL) in Spain, the Angry Brigade in UK, and Red Army Faction in
4. Pathological Groups.
The Symbionese Liberation Army and the Weather Underground
organizations are both grouped here by the Institute. The Institute also observed that pathological
violence appears to be a phenomenon of persons such as Charles Manson, the Son of Sam, and the
Hillside Strangler, rather than groups. Motivation normally has more to do with personal inadequacy,
hatred of family, or specifically white middle-class guilt-feeling, than with acquired ideology.
5. Neo-fascist and extreme right-wing groups. The threat from right wing groups is steadily rising in
Europe, in particular. Neo Nazis and Neo fascists groups are appearing to counter the activities of the
left. They may pose just as serious a threat to security agencies as do the more traditional terrorist
6. Ideological Mercenaries. Western Societies are now experiencing a new form of terrorism. Men
and women, for the sake of a shared ideology and a common faith in worldwide revolution (rather than
money), are ready to cross frontiers to pursue their cause. The Japanese Red Army (Rengo Sekigun)
is cited as an example by the Institute. Another example is Carlos, The Jackal.
Terrorist groups are categorized by government affiliation to help security planners anticipate terrorist
targets and their sophistication of intelligence and weaponry. Three general categories that have
gained acceptance are--
o Nonstate supported. A terrorist group that operates autonomously, receiving no significant
support from any government (for example, Italy's Red Brigades, Basque ETA).
o State supported. A terrorist group that generally operates independently, but receives support
from one or more governments (for example, PFLP in the Middle East).
o State directed. A terrorist group that operates as an agent of a government receiving
substantial intelligence, logistics, and operational support (for example, Libyan "hit teams").