style communicate reasons for their decisions or actions and, in the process, build in subordinates a
broader understanding and ability to exercise initiative and operate effectively.
e. In contrast, some leaders employ only the transactional leadership style. This style
includes such techniques as--
(1) Motivating subordinates to work by offering rewards or threatening punishment.
(2) Prescribing task assignments in writing.
(3) Outlining all the conditions of task completion, the applicable rules and regulations,
the benefits of success, and the consequences--to include possible disciplinary actions--of failure.
(4) Management -by- exception, where leaders focus on their subordinates' failures;
showing up only when something goes wrong.
(5) The leader who relies exclusively on the transactional style, rather than combining it
with the transformational style, evokes only short-term commitment from his subordinates and
discourages risk-taking and innovation.
PART H - Leadership Attributes
Attributes are a person's fundamental qualities and characteristics. People are born with some
attributes; for instance, a person's genetic code determines eye, hair, and skin color. However, other
attributes, including leader attributes, are learned and can be changed. Leader attributes can be
characterized as mental, physical, and emotional. Successful leaders work to improve those
1. Leaders who demonstrate desirable mental attributes:
b. Think and act quickly and logically, even when there are no clear instructions or the plan
c. Analyze situations.
d. Combine complex ideas to generate feasible courses of action.
e. Balance resolve and flexibility.
f. Show a desire to succeed; do not quit in the face of adversity.
g. Do their fair share.
h. Balance competing demands.