a. As it was not for adults over 30 years of age, its programs and philosophies applied only to a
small fraction of convicted criminals.
b. No provisions were made for the social or political education of inmates.
c. It did not provide the proper surroundings to expedite reform. It was structured as a
d. Inmates were generally dealt with as a group rather than as individuals.
e. There was a persistent preoccupation with mere custody and security, which seemed to stifle
all ingenuity and enterprise. As a result, it quickly became a junior prison.
PART D - Juvenile Institutions.
1. The earliest movement on behalf of destitute, neglected, and exposed children was made in
Halle, Germany in 1695 by August Hermann Francks. In 1704, Pope Clement XI erected a church
prison for delinquent boys in Rome called San Michele. Specialized treatment of juveniles
originated in Switzerland in 1746 where Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi became widely known for his
2. The Parkhurst Act, passed in England in 1838, is significant in that it was the first step taken by
a modern state to establish a separate correctional system for juveniles and youthful offenders. It
was a substitute for the deportation of youth offenders. Parkhurst was abolished as an institution for
juveniles in 1864. By the middle of the 19th century, England had a large number of private
agencies in child-saving work. The local magistrate selected the school to which children were to
be sent. School authorities could refuse to accept any offender they thought would not be adaptable
to the program selected for him.
3. In America, the introduction of a true juvenile establishment in the United States was due to the
work of John Griscom, 1774-1852. The Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents
established the New York House of Refuge in 1825 at Madison Square, New York. Its objective
was instruction rather than punishment for past misdeeds. A second institution was opened in
Boston in 1826 and a third was opened in Philadelphia in 1828. All were semiprivate.
4. Prior to 1840, houses of refuge in England were built like prisons with cell-like dormitories,
barred windows, and so forth. In 1840, cottages displaced this type of institution. Cottages housed
about 25 to 40 persons each. There were no exterior walls, bars, or cells. The objective was to
provide family-type units, self-government, and hard work on farm projects. This system spread to
America and took root in the institution for girls at Lancaster, Massachusetts, in 1854.
PART E - Other Developments in the American Penal System.
1. During 1870-1900, additional prisons were constructed in 16 states. All of these were of the
Auburn type and were not particularly unusual except that cells were provided with plumbing,
running water, and ventilating systems. Most of them introduced some kind of rudimentary
educational program, including a prison library.