telephone booth, enter an adjacent one. An attempt should be made to note the
telephone book and the page number used by the subject. Remember that a tail-
conscious subject may simulate a telephone call to see if he is being followed.
An effort should be made to recover any items discarded by the subject. Also,
the second sheets from any writing pads which the subject has used should be
However, you should avoid picking up an item discarded by the
subject when this might lead to your recognition.
(4) Subjects more tail-conscious may suddenly reverse their course.
They may enter dead end streets, or use "cohorts" to test for surveillants. If
the subject makes a U-turn, you should continue straight ahead; or turn into a
store or building. Reverse your direction to continue the surveillance when it
will not arouse suspicion.
A "cohort" is an associate of the subject that
follows him for protective purposes.
If you recognize a cohort, follow him
from behind rather than following the subject.
Techniques of Foot Surveillance.
When conducting a foot surveillance, from one to six
investigators can be used; however, whenever possible, more than one should be
used. This minimizes the risk of detection by the subject. Three seems to be
the optimal number. In this way, the surveillants can alternate staying close
to the subject. One or two may drop off when they feel the subject is on the
verge of singling them out. They can also avoid abrupt changes in direction.
They can do so by having the closest man continue straight ahead when the
subject turns a corner or reverses his direction.
This also offers the
opportunity to have a trailer on the opposite side of the street. He may have
a better view of what's going on, while avoiding notice of himself.
Prearranged signals should be preplanned and used by members of the
surveillance team. One such signal may include straightening a hat.
b. One-Man Surveillance.
A one-man surveillance is best used in a
situation calling for a fixed surveillance. It should be avoided in a moving
surveillance because it is not flexible. If a moving one-man surveillance must
be used, operate behind the subject when on the same side of the street. Keep
as close as possible to observe his actions or make a successful apprehension
at the right time. Crowds and street conditions normally dictate the correct
distance to keep. However, you must consider light conditions, the subject's
evasive actions, and your personal desires. As a general rule, the more people
on the street, the closer you can stay to the subject.
(1) If the subject turns a corner in an uncrowded area, continue across
the intersecting street.
By glancing up the street in the direction the
subject traveled, you can note his position and actions.
You can then act
accordingly. You can operate across the street. Recross at your leisure to
fall back in behind the subject. When he turns a corner on a crowded street,
stop at the corner. Slyly observe the subject's actions. Unless the subject
is standing just around the corner, your surveillance can then be continued
from the same side of the street.
Whatever the conditions, however, do not
turn a corner immediately behind the subject.