4. Types of Surveillance. There are two general types of surveillance: mobile
and fixed. A mobile surveillance is sometimes termed "tailing" or "shadowing."
The fixed is termed as a "stakeout" or "plant." A mobile surveillance may be
made on foot or by vehicle. It is conducted when persons being observed move
from point to point and are followed by surveillants. A fixed surveillance is
conducted when a person or activity remains in place.
Methods of Surveillance.
a. Loose surveillance.
During loose surveillance, subjects need not be
kept under constant observation.
The surveillance should be stopped if the
subject becomes suspicious.
A loose surveillance is normally used when a
general impression of the subject's habits and associates are required.
b. Close surveillance.
In close surveillances, subjects are kept under
observation continuously; surveillances are maintained at all times. Such is
the case even if the subjects know they are being followed. Generally, such a
tail would be required when the subject is suspected of impending criminal
It would be required when it is believed that a subject with
information vital to the security of the US is about to defect.
c. Combination of loose and close surveillance.
necessitate a change from loose to close surveillance. It usually depends on a
specific act of the subject. Preplanning is helpful, but you must observe and
interpret the act or circumstances accurately. By so doing you can implement
Suppose the plan is for loose surveillance until a certain event
After that, surveillance is to become close.
must be made as to when the specific event has occurred.
a. During the course of surveillance, remain inconspicuous. Regardless of
the actions or tricks of the subject, avoid any odd behavior or conspicuous
action. Such would single you out. Do not use theatrical disguises, such as
false beards. They are impractical, hard to maintain, and easily detectable.
Do not make abrupt, unnatural moves from doorway to doorway or from tree to
Do not take other similar actions which are unnecessary and attract
attention. You should, however, when following a subject, shift from left to
Never remain directly behind the subject.
Use both sides of the
When in a dangerous neighborhood, walk on the curb side of the
This precludes the possibility of being attacked from doorways or
alleys. It also affords you the best observation vantage point.
b. Never look straight into the subject's eyes. If you must do so while
facing him, look just behind him or at his feet.
Don't appear to be too
You must overcome the tendency to believe that the subject has
"made" (identified) you. You may believe it because he glances at you several
There is seldom a real basis for this belief; it arises merely from
inexperience and self-consciousness.
If you are actually "made," you can
normally tell by the actions of the subject. He usually takes delight, then,
in showing that he is aware of your surveillance.
If you are positive that