emotional stability are called learned needs and include safety, social acceptance, and self-
fulfillment. Human needs are the same for all personnel, but they vary in importance of degree
from one person to another.
14. Relationship of Needs. Understanding the difference between physical and learned needs,
we can now examine the relationship between such needs. One attempt to classify human needs--
probably the best known and easiest to understand--was developed by Abraham H. Maslow.
According to Maslow's theory (or hierarchy), human needs develop from lower to higher needs with
the lower needs having to be satisfied before the higher needs can develop.
15. Discussion. Applying Maslow's hierarchy, a person who has not had water for a long time
experiences thirst, and his most immediate need is a physical one, namely, gratification of his thirst
through drinking. This physical need transcends, in its immediate importance, all other human
needs required for mental or emotional stability. The physical needs do not usually cause the leader
or follower any problem except under the most trying circumstances such as during combat or a
natural disaster. When these physical needs are not satisfied, a person turns his attention from the
task at hand, in terms of the organizational mission, to his own personal well-being.
16. Above the physical needs, are the learned needs, which man progresses to when physical
needs are fulfilled. First in order are the safety needs. This most basic of learned needs has been
developed through man's relationship with man and society in general. As an example, a safety or
security need is concerned with protection of one's personal possessions. Law has its origin in this
learned need for safety and security.
17. Next in the hierarchy is the need for belonging and social acceptance. So long as an
individual perceives himself as not belonging to a group, he is not a productive Soldier and cannot
progress to the next step in the hierarchy.
18. Esteem needs follow in the hierarchy and can be realized by leaders being people oriented
as opposed to system oriented. The subordinate needs an occasional pat on the back for a job well
done to earn the respect of his peers. Likewise, the prisoner in confinement needs to be treated as
an individual so he feels that you, as a correctional supervisor, respect him as a human being
regardless of the circumstances in which he finds himself.
19. Progressing up the hierarchy, the highest human need in Maslow's hierarchy is self-
fulfillment. But how do we go about the business of stimulating, encouraging or assisting our
subordinates or military prisoners in confinement to progressively satisfying each human need so
they can arrive at the pinnacle of the hierarchy, namely, that of self-actualization where each
individual would realize his full potential for becoming that which he is capable of becoming?
Read the following discussion on motivation.
PART C - Motivation.
1. The task of motivating subordinates and the military prisoner is squarely on the leader's
shoulders. His first task in motivating his personnel is to recognize the existence of both the formal
and informal contracts between the Soldier and the Army. He must ensure that the terms of these
contracts are met. The formal contract is the military obligation that man incurs when he is sworn
into military service. The informal contract consists of those implied obligations and